Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders resulting from damage to the lung parenchyma by varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classified1 idiopathic interstitial pneumonias into seven distinct entities based on clinical manifestations, pathology, and radiologic features (Table 1). One of these entities, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is a progressive, fatal disease. IPF has been defined in an American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society consensus statement1 as a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology that is limited to the lungs and is associated with surgical biopsy specimens showing a histologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). UIP histopathology is not unique to IPF, and has been reported in asbestosis, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and collagen vascular disorders with associated interstitial lung disease.
While ongoing research continues to investigate multiple hypotheses of UIP pathogenesis, neither the natural history nor the pathogenesis of UIP is currently well understood. To determine whether UIP represents the end stage of IPF, it is important to elucidate the complete natural history and pathogenesis of IPF, which would allow the investigation of potentially different mechanisms that may be operative at the early, intermediate, and end stages of the disease. This knowledge could lead to the implementation of targeted therapeutic interventions at specific stages of the disease process. Continue reading “Pathogenesis and Natural History of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: Pathology of IPF”
Before discussing the implications of these observations, it is necessary to consider their reliability. The data in Table 1 are shown because of the possibility that the cases having the background information about alcohol use might not be representative of those for whom this information was not recorded. While the table shows a trend for values to be larger in the group with known history, only one pair of values (prevalence of emphysema) approached statistical significance (p = 0.Q5) using the x2 test.
Continue reading “Disscusion of The Beneficial Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Prevalence and Extent of Centrilobular Emphysema”
Seven hundred twenty-six patients showing clinical and radiologic findings of community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled in the study; however, 66 patients were subsequently excluded from the study for the following reasons: misdiagnosis at enrollment (n = 59); nosocomial acquisition hospitalization (n = 4); and consent not obtained (n = 3). Thus, 660 patients constituted the final study group. Underlying diseases were found in 324 patients (49%), among which COPD (114 patients), diabetes mellitus (106 patients), and congestive heart disease (58 patients) were the most common.
The subgroup of patients with diabetes mellitus was mainly constituted by patients with type 2 diabetes, which was diagnosed in 100 patients (94%). The mean duration of illness was 8 years, although for 14 patients the diagnosis was established during the present episode of pneumonia. At study entry, the mean plasma glucose level was 238 mg/dL, and the mean hemoglobin A1c value was 8.1%. Diabetes-related complications were common among these patients; thus, 20 patients (19%) had diabetic retinopathy, 18 patients (17%) had diabetic nephropathy, 18 patients (17%) had experienced major mac-rovascular events (eg, ischemic heart disease, stroke, or intermittent claudication), and 5 patients (5%) had peripheral polyneuropathy; for only 56 patients were complications absent. In addition to diet, 59 patients (56%) were receiving treatment with oral agents, and 40 patients (38%) were receiving treatment with insulin (both therapies were simultaneously used in 18 patients); however, during pneumonia 95 patients (90%) needed insulin therapy.
Continue reading “Results of Etiology and Outcome of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus”
For people who’ve had a stroke, a treatment that involves applying an electric current to the brain may help boost recovery of their mobility, a small clinical trial found.
Stroke is the most common cause of severe, long-term disability. Rehabilitation training, which helps patients re-learn how to use their bodies, can help some patients recover their ability to move. But it is often costly and time-consuming.
The new study looked at 24 patients; each had experienced a stroke that affected his or her ability move a hand and arm. Half of the participants were picked, at random, to receive nine days of rehab paired with a brain-stimulation technique known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This method uses electrodes placed on the scalp to deliver constant, low electrical currents to specific areas of the brain. The other patients received a sham control treatment; they were fitted with electrodes but did not receive tDCS. Continue reading “Brain Stimulation Could Speed Stroke Recovery”
Alcohol is one of the drugs of abuse and, when taken in excess, is clearly capable of producing irreversible damage to several organs, including the liver, brain, and myocardium. Yet it has certain felicitous effects, as a result of which it is used by the majority of the population of this country. Since excessive use has such significant effects, it has long been suspected that moderate consumption also may cause less obvious injury to these or other organs. One organ system which has been considered at risk is the respiratory tract. The susceptibility to tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections is increased, and lung abscesses due to aspiration also are more common.
Continue reading “The Beneficial Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Prevalence and Extent of Centrilobular Emphysema”
This is the first proteomic approach using the human T-lymphocytes of blood in asthmatic patients. Although the proteomic data of the T-lymphocytes of normal human has been reported, no study on T-lymphocytes in asthmatic patients has been reported.
It is known that the asthmatic process that triggers the immune system can lead to excessive release of various cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which are produced by T-cells, infiltrated mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and local mast cells into the lung. Among the inflammatory cells, T-lymphocytes play major roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asth-ma.’ So, we performed proteomic analysis of the peripheral T-lymphocytes of asthmatic patients.
Continue reading “Consideration of Proteomic Analysis of Peripheral T-Lymphocytes in Patients With Asthma”
More than 300 spots were identified in the 20-PAGE gels from the T-lymphocytes of the normal and asthmatic patients. The general distribution pattern of the spots in the silver-stained gels was similar in both groups (Fig 1, top left, A, and top right, B). The spots in the area of pi 4 to 7, and molecular weight of 20 to 100 kd were analyzed by an image analysis program (ProteomWeaver). Protein spots of the normal and asthma groups were compared, and 25 proteins showed different intensity, suggesting the differential expression. Among them, the intensities of 13 spots were significantly increased and the intensities of 12 spots were decreased in the asthma group compared to the control group. The 25 selected spots of the 2D-PAGE of an asthmatic, nonsmoking, 27-year-old man are shown in Figure 1, bottom, C.
Identification of the Differentially Expressed Proteins by MALDI-TOF-MS
After destaining, extraction, and lysis with trypsin, the individual spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and this was followed by a database search (MS-FIT). On the list of 20 candidate proteins for each spot, the final protein was determined by comprehensively considering the corresponding experimental isoelectric point, the molecular masses, the number of matched peptides, and the sequence coverage. Thirteen up-regulated and 12 down-regulated proteins in the asthmatic group were identified (Table 1). Testing for multiple comparisons by FDR analysis resulted in an FDR threshold (a) value of 0.0396468. Treat asthma and read more about it on My Canadaina Pharmacy – https://mycanadian-pharmacy.net/category/asthma.
Continue reading “My Canadian Pharmacy about Outcomes of Proteomic Analysis of Peripheral T-Lymphocytes in Patients With Asthma”