In life of every woman there comes a time when she faces menopause — process of extinction of child-bearing function. Changes do not occur in one day. The process can last for 1 — 3 years. For this reason, many people think: is it possible to become pregnant after menopause?
Menopause and Hormones
The processes occurring in the body are interrelated. Menopause is affected by endocrine system. On its work depends success of conception. Progesterone and estrogen, which this system produces, contribute to formation of the egg. Under the influence of hormones, there are changes in mammary glands that make them suitable for feeding the baby, and in the womb there appear favorable conditions for attaching the fetal egg.
With age, ovaries begin to react less to effects of hormones. Because of this, maturation of the egg begins to occur not regularly. Menstrual cycle disrupts or disappears, which indicates onset of menopause. Faced with transition period, a woman should remember that possibility of getting pregnant after menopause remains. Menopause has negative impact on health of women. Walls of vessels become less elastic. This can adversely affect successful outcome of pregnancy.
How does Pregnancy Affect Menopause?
Being pregnant after menopause, a woman should remember that:
- the process of gestation and childbirth smooths course of menopause;
- there may be problems with teeth, bone system, overall health. There is an opinion that late birth can prolong woman’s youth. This judgment is erroneous. After birth of child, mother’s health can seriously deteriorate. This appears due to lack of vitamins;
- work of kidneys may be disturbed and pelvic lowering may occur;
- onset of pregnancy does not stop processes that occur during menopause.
Pregnancy after menopause should proceed under close supervision of specialists.
Is Conception during Menopause Justified?
Realizing that it is possible to become pregnant after menopause, a woman should consult a specialist before deciding on this step. Opinion of doctors about the question — Is pregnancy safe after menopause for health of the mother and child? — vary. Decision about conception should be taken individually in each specific case. In this case, we should not forget:
- risk of a sick child’s birth increases significantly with age. To protect yourself, it is necessary to conduct genetic tests that allow to obtain information about state of health of the future baby;
- during pregnancy and childbirth there can be complications. To protect herself a woman must be constantly monitored by a competent doctor.
Decision to get pregnant after menopause should be considered by a woman. She must understand that she can face unforeseen complications. Before planning conception, you should obligatory consult a specialist. The doctor can predict possible complications in advance.
Only fully healthy future mothers can bear a child during period of onset of cessation of reproductive function. If a woman has a disease, she should refuse birth of a baby during menopause. Read here how to prevent pregnancy — https://mycanadianpharmacyteam.com/general-information-about-ortho-tri-cyclen.html.
In the list of antibiotics there are many drugs that are allowed to take during pregnancy, their safety for the baby is proven. Antibiotics fight only with bacteria, they do not work for viruses and other pathogens, so there is no point in taking them for colds or flu.
Use of antibiotics is necessary in all cases of acute bacterial infections. But they can not be used without doctor’s prescription. Only a specialist can prescribe you the drug and its dosage that will work for you. Read article about how to apply antibiotics properly here — https://mycanadianpharmacyteam.com/how-to-take-antibiotics.html.
Most antibiotics that are approved for use by pregnant women for the most common diseases are safe for the baby. But the risk associated with the disease is much higher if it is not treated. Therefore, do not refuse taking these drugs.
Influence of Antibiotics on the Fetus
If antibiotic (like any other medicine) is not properly prescribed, it can interfere with safe development of the embryo. Particularly undesirable is their use in the first trimester, as baby’s organs are only being formed, and any toxin (including antibiotic) can stop or disrupt this process.
All side effects of these drugs are well known to your doctor. If the medicine is prescribed correctly, risk of complications is minimal, and in any case, it will be much lower than risk of worsening of the disease that you want to cure.
Allowed Antibiotics for Pregnancy
- Penicillin group: amoxicillin, ampicillin, oxamp, amoxiclav, etc. (injections and tablets). Do not have harmful effect on the child and do not slow down its development.
- Cephalosporins: cefazolin, ceftriaxone, cefepime (injections), suprax (tablets), etc. Do not affect condition and development of the child, although they penetrate the placenta.
- Erythromycin, vilprafen, rovamycin (tablets) belong to the same group. Permissible for use during pregnancy. Do not disrupt development of the child.
- Sumamed, zitrolide, zi-factor (tablets) — different names of the same substance. Used only in case of emergency, when other antibiotics do not work.
- Furadonin (tablets) — often used for treatment of cystitis. Only allowed in the second trimester.
- Metronidazole, trichopolum, flagyl (tablets) — often used to treat genitourinary infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Strictly forbidden for admission in the first trimester, as it is proved that the drug can cause developmental disorders in fetus.
- Gentamicin (injections) — used only in case of life threat, for example, at sepsis. Requires strict dose calculation, since it can cause deafness in child.
Prohibited Antibiotics for Pregnancy
- Tetracycline, doxycycline: poisonous to liver of the child, accumulate in bones.
- Ciprofloxacin, nolycin, ciprolet: damage joints of the child at any period.
- Furagin, furamag, ersefuril: have a potentially harmful effect on the child.
- Levomycetin (also included in synthomycin ointment, levomecol and sprays from burns): affects fetal bone marrow, disrupts formation of blood.
- Dioxydin: as experiments on animals have shown, causes various mutations and deviations in development of the child.
- Biseptol: very dangerous, slows down growth and development of the child, increases risk of congenital anomalies.
Although smallpox is considered to be eradicated now, previously the mortality due to smallpox was greater in pregnancy. Polio during pregnancy was associated with a greater mortality and a greater frequency of paralytic illness than polio in nonpregnant subjects. During the years 1949 to 1953 in New York City, the incidence of cases of both paralytic and nonparalytic poliomyelitis among pregnant patients was 60 percent more than the incidence among nonpregnant women in the same age range. However, the infection rate among pregnant patients correlated with the number of children in the household, and since these data were not available for the nonpregnant subjects, it is not known whether a greater number of children in the households of pregnant patients might underlie the greater frequency of disease in these patients when compared to nonpregnant control subjects.
Continue reading “Viral Infections in Pregnancy with My Canadian Pharmacy”
The survival of the fetal allograft is a remarkable phenomenon. The fetus contains a complement of paternal antigens, up to half of which are likely to be “foreign” to the mother. Mothers will reject grafts from their children. Yet, these same children were carried for nine months as “fetal allografts” and managed to escape rejection. Understanding of this phenomenon is incomplete but may be approached through brief analysis of the immunologic mechanisms of graft rejection and regulation of these immune mechanisms.
Continue reading “Cell-mediated Immunity and Pregnancy: Mechanisms of Graft Rejection”